Prospective authors are responsible for ensuring that their manuscript meets SBG publication standards. These standards are described in detail below. In addition to following general style guidelines, submitters should also look at any specific guidelines for manuscripts in the category for which their submission is intended--e.g., Article, Point of View Essay, Film Review, Book Review, or Etcetera.
- Font, Spacing, and Margins
- Title Page
- Body of Paper
- Citations in the Body of the Paper
- Citing Internet Sources
- Tables and Figures/Graphs
- Copyrighted Material
- Literature Cited
- Inclusion of Abstract and Key Words: All Article Types
- Articles of an Empirical or Theoretical Nature: Section Headings
- Articles on Clinical Practice: Section Divisions
- Point of View Essays
- Book and/or Film Reviews
- Etcetera Section
General Manuscript Guidelines
Guidelines Specific to Submission Type:
Manuscripts must be double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 typeface, with 1 inch margins all around.
Manuscripts submitted to SBG should ordinarily be 25 or fewer pages. With the pre-approval of the Editor-In-Chief, occasionally longer papers may be reviewed for publication consideration.
The title page should contain the following information:
- The complete title of the submission;
- The full name(s) of each author;
- Each author’s affiliation and contact information;
- A brief biographical sketch of no more than 4-6 sentences for each author.
- Acknowledgements: Names of individuals whom the author wishes to thank for their assistance in preparing the submission; and/or
- Disclosures: Acknowledgements regarding research funding, if any.
Including information in the following areas (e.g., 5 and/or 6) is at the author's discretion (optional):
To facilitate blind peer review, the Editor-In-Chief will separate the Title Page from the manuscript before the submission is sent out for review.
Each submission should include a clear introductory statement of purpose; a brief review of the important literature for empirical and theoretical submissions; a description of method and scope of observations for empirical submissions; statement of hypothesis, if present; an analysis of all results; brief discussion of the significance of the findings with comments connecting this paper with the previous, relevant literature; and a section on implications and suggestions for future research, if relevant. The reasonable use of headings to divide sections of the paper is encouraged.
1. Citations in the body of the paper should identify the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Prospective authors should avoid using websites as citations in the body of the manuscript. They should also cite the primary source (e.g. original author(s) of the work to which they are referring in their submission). Page numbers must be included for all direct quotes and for paraphrased passages. Prospective authors should cite only those works needed to provide supporting evidence for assertions made in the text and to refer to important sources on the topic.
In the following examples of text citations, ellipses (...) indicate manuscript text:
- When author’s last name appears in the body of the paper, her/his name should be followed with the year of publication in parentheses. Example: ... Ruggiero (2014).
- When an author is not identified by name in the body, her/his name and the year of publication should both be listed in parentheses. Example: ... (Ruggiero 2014).
- Page(s) for a direct quote should follow the year of publication after a colon. Example: ... (Ruggiero 2014:49).
- When citing two or more authors, use the following style conventions:
For joint authors, provide the last names of both authors.
Example: ... (Wildman and Waldfogel 2014).
For three authors, list all three last names in the first citation in the text.
Example: ... (Berger, Paxon, and Waldfogel 2014). For all subsequent citations use “et al" for authors after the first named.
Example: ... (Berger et al. 2014).
For works with four or more authors, use “et al.” throughout after the last name of the lead author.
- For institutional authorship. Supply minimal identification from the complete citation.
Example ... (Cohousing Association of the U. S. 2016).
- List a series of citations in alphabetical order by first author's last name separated by semicolons. Example: ... (Maxwell et al. 2011; Steers 2009; Wayne 1998).
- Use “forthcoming” to cite a source scheduled for publication. Example... Smith (forthcoming).
- For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the author and date. If no date is listed, use “n.d.” in place of the date. Example... Pearson (n.d.).
- If abbreviated terms (e.g. cf) are used in the paper, the author(s) should define each in a footnote when the term first appears.
2. Groups of citations within the body of the paper should be listed in alphabetical order by the first (lead) author’s last name. To facilitate blinded peer review, do not include any text citation that identifies you as the author of the submission. Instead, when citing your own work, write “Jeffries (2016) concluded...,” rather than “I concluded (Jeffries 2016)....”
3. Prior to submitting a paper, authors should be sure that the citations in the body of his/her paper match the citations listed in the "LITERATURE CITED" section exactly. For example, if the author cites 10 works in the body of the paper, he/she must include the complete citation for each of the 10 works in the LITERATURE CITED section.
Citation of internet sources can be confusing. Citation protocol is changing due to the variety of formats and web-based resources that have become available in recent years. SBG encourages authors to use and cite mainly published sources when possible. SBG also recognizes the need for limited use of internet sources in some submissions. Please follow these guidelines when dealing with broken links and direct quotes from non-paginated sources.
Regarding "broken links," please follow the guidelines below:
- Author(s) should double check and try to find working links. Because web resources move around, a quick Google search for a resource may lead to an updated URL.
- This is also an area when a 'Retrieved' by date in the reference can be helpful. Authors are encouraged to try the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine to find a cached page: https://archive.org/web/ The Internet Archive's Wayback Machine "Save Page Now" option (https://archive.org/web/) allows users to create permanent URLs for citations. This way, if the page moves in the future, the URL from the citation still works.
- Even if a link is not working, the citation is correct and the reference is still useful.
Regarding authors' use of direct quotes from non-paginated internet sources:
In general, authors are encouraged to use direct quotes from both printed and internet sources sparingly. However, in cases where authors quote from non-paginated internet sources, the in-text citation of author and publication date is acceptable.
As with all sources, printed or internet, included in a submission to SBG, authors are solely responsible for the accuracy of the sources and/or links they cite.
Where necessary, SBG manuscript guidelines require authors use footnotes rather than endnotes for brief explanations or elaborations. Footnotes containing important information should be typed, double-spaced. Begin each footnote with the superscript numeral which matches it in the text (1., 2. etc.). Footnotes may be used to explain or amplify a sentence or comment included in the text of the manuscript (e.g., provide details about sample selection). Avoid Footnotes that exceed 100 words. Instead, consider either stating in the text that information is available from the author or adding an Appendix with this information at the end of the manuscript.
Each table or figure which accompanies a submission must be on a separate page submitted as individual attachments along with the paper submission. Each table and/or figure must be numbered and contain a clear, simple title which identifies its contents. Tables present lists of numbers and percentages, rates, or text in columns. Each column must have a title or label. Figures are visual presentations of results. A figure may be a graph, diagram, photo, drawing, schematic, map, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figures. Tables and Figures should be computer generated and contain legends. It is the author's responsibility to insure the accuracy of the contents of all tables and figures. Consistency of the style or format the author uses in tables or graphs which appear in the same submission is important.
Each table and figure must be numbered consecutively beginning with the number 1 (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). The author must at least briefly describe, in the body of the paper, the patterns of the data in each table and figure. Each table or figure must also be cited by number at the end of the description.
Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from copyright owners to reprint any previously published material included in their article. Each author must sign a written agreement stating that s/he has obtained the copyright transfer for each copyrighted image.
Not all submissions contain references. Submissions that fall into the "Articles" category generally do. Sometimes Point of View essays also contain references.
If a submission refers to other people's work, then all sources cited in the body of the submission must be listed at the end of the submission in a section titled “LITERATURE CITED”. The "LITERATURE CITED" section is equivalent to the "References" section in other journals.
Publication information for each reference must be complete and accurate.
List work cited in alphabetical order by authors’ last names. Use of first and middle initial for each author is acceptable. Including first names and middle initials for each author, when available, is preferred.
Book Format Citation Examples:
Single Author: Wuthnow, R. 1998. Loose Connections: Joining Together in America’s Fragmented Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Two Authors: McCamant, K. & Durrett, C. 1994. Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves. Berkeley, CA.: Ten Speed Press.
Several Authors: Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A. & Tipton, S. M. 1985. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley, CA.: University of California Press.
Entries by the Same Author: List two or more entries by the same author(s) in order of the year of publication beginning with the earliest year.
Journal Article Example:
Goldberg, R. 1997. “Adopting Romanian Children: Making Choices, Taking Risks.” Marriage and Family Review. 25, 1/2: 79-98.
Goldberg, R. 2001. “The Social Construction of Adoptive Families: A Follow-up Study of Adopting Romanian Children.” International Review of Sociology. 11, 1: 89-101.
When the same author publishes more than one article in the same year, use lower case alphabetics (a, b, c) after the year of publication.
Journal Article Example:
Fisher, Alan P. 2003a. (Spring). “ A Critique of the Portrayal of Adoption in College Texts and Readers on Families, 1998-2001.” Family Relations. 52:154-160.
Fisher, Alan P. 2003b. “Still ‘Not Quite as Good as Having Your Own’? Toward a Sociology of Adoption.” Annual Review of Sociology. 29: 335-61.
When material cited in a manuscript has been accepted for publication but is not yet been published, use “Forthcoming” in place of the date and give the journal name or publishing house. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the date and place the manuscript was presented and/or where it is available. If no date is available, use “n.d.” in place of the date. If two or more cited works are by the same author(s) within the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title and distinguish them by adding the letters a, b, c, etc., to the year (or to “Forthcoming”).
For works with more than one author, please invert the last name of the first author only (e.g., “Godfrey, Andrew A., Karen S. Smith, and Joseph Patterson”). List all authors. Note that using “et al.” in the LITERATURE CITED section is not acceptable.
Upon acceptance of a submission for publication in SBG, authors are responsible for carefully proofreading the pre-publication draft of their submission and making sure that any errors in it are corrected before the submission is published on the SBG website.
Prospective authors are encouraged to keep the body of the paper focused on important content. In cases where there is important supplemental material the author wishes to include, this material may be included in an APPENDIX.
Guidelines Specific to Different Types of Submissions (12-17)
12. Inclusion of Abstract and Key Words: All Articles Types
In addition to the manuscript itself, submissions intended for publication as articles require the author(s) to submit an Abstract of between 200 - 350 words. The Abstract must appear on the page after the title page, along with three or four Key Words/Phrases identifying the content of the submission.
The Abstract should include the objective, method, results, conclusions, and practical implications of the submission. Authors should use complete sentences and spell out any acronyms the first time mentioned in the Abstract and in the Body the paper.
13. Articles of Empirical or Theoretical Nature: Section Headings
Author(s) is (are) encouraged to divide their submissions into labeled sections. Broad section headings generally include the following:
Analysis of Results,
Discussion and/or Implications
14. Articles on Clinical Practice: Section Divisions
For submissions on clinical practice, authors are encouraged to divide the body of the paper into three parts which include the following:
- A brief review of relevant clinical theory and research;
- Description and analysis of the clinical case material reported in the paper; and
- Discussion of the clinical case material against the background of existing theories and/or modifications needed/recommended to enhance the clinical case material.
15. Point of View Essays
The Point of View (POV) section of SBG consists of essays from individuals (including non-sociologists) who have direct experience with the topic being explored in each volume. The goal of a POV essay section is to generate open substantive discussion of controversial topics and issues related to each volume’s theme, and to include the work of individuals who have a range of perspectives and experiences. In response to POVs already published in SBG, those who have opposing viewpoints are encouraged to submit their ideas/work as a tastefully-written response.
- If you are interested in submitting a POV essay please contact the Editor-in-Chief and provide a brief description of your essay topic, structure, and approach. If you have already been in contact with the Editor-in-Chief about the content of the essay you plan to submit, then submit the essay itself.
- Length guidelines: Generally, POV essays are 2,000 words or less. The Editor-in-Chief will consider longer essays (up to 5,000 words) after receipt from the potential submitter of a detailed outline of the essay's principal objective and contents along with a justification of the need for greater length.
An invitation to submit a POV essay is
Opinions presented in the POV section reflect authors' views alone, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editorial Board of SBG, or of Providence College. Readers of the journal are encouraged to evaluate POV essays on the merit of the essay’s thesis (if present), contents and information provided in the Author Bio section at the end of each essay.
16. Book and/or Film Reviews:
The principal objective of book and film reviews in SBG is to include reflections on current work which will reach a diverse readership. Similar to essays submitted to the Point of View section, other objectives of the Book and Film Review Section are to generate open substantive discussion of topics and issues related to each volume’s theme, and to include the work of individuals who have a range of perspectives and experiences. In response to book or film reviews already published in SBG, those who think they have something important to add or a different way of looking at the book or film are encouraged to submit, directly to the Editor-in-Chief, their ideas/work as a tastefully-written response to the original review.
Book and/or film reviews related to the theme being explored in a given volume of SBG may be submitted by sociologists and non-sociologists who have read the book, or viewed the film, and who have experience with the content covered in either. Reviews should include a description of the book or film as well as the submitter's reflection on, or evaluation of, its content and its relevance to the journal's theme. If submitters are sociologists, then writing from a sociological perspective and using relevant sociological concepts is strongly encouraged.
If you are interested in submitting a book or film review, please contact the Editor-in-Chief in advance and provide a brief outline of the structure and approach you propose.
Length guideline: 2,000 words or less.
An invitation to submit a Book or Film Review essay is not a guarantee of its publication in SBG. Submitters should expect that reviews which are accepted for publication may be edited for wording, content or style before they appear in SBG. In the case of accepted reviews, the Editor-in-Chief will send the reviewer a final draft of the review before it appears on the SBG website. At that time, she will ask the author to send a brief 4-6 sentence statement about his or her relevant background to include in the Author Bio.
Readers of the journal are encouraged to view book and film reviews on the merit of their contents and information provided in the Author Bio section. As with other submissions to SBG, book and film reviews pertinent to a given volume must be received by the Editor-in-Chief no later than the advertised end of the submission period for a volume.
17. Etcetera Section
This section, introduced in Volume 2 of Sociology Between the Gaps, offers prospective authors the opportunity to submit briefer items of interest related to the theme of a volume. The objective of this section is to supplement the content of the longer submissions published in a given volume of SBG.
Prospective authors interested in submitting an item for the Etcetera section of a volume are encouraged to look at the kinds of items published in the Etcetera section of SBG2. Prior to submitting a piece for publication consideration in this section, they should contact the Editor- in-Chief at firstname.lastname@example.org with a brief summary of what they plan to write.